During this period, Americans look to English prototypes for architectural design inspiration. Public buildings include government structures, churches, educational structures, and taverns.
Public structures are formal, two stories tall, and symmetrically balanced, but larger in scale than domestic structures. Palladian influence is apparent in temple fronts, the orders, quoins, arches, and Palladian windows.
Churches follow the British tradition, with a Latin cross plan in the South and a more centralized plan in New England. Common building materials are wood, brick, and stone. Public facades indicate an increasing application of classical details throughout the period. Designers emphasize center entrances with aedicula (frames composed of columns or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment), temple fronts, porticoes, and/or cupolas. The tower and steeple mark the entrance front of churches.
Exchange building and customs house, Charleston, SC-
S. Michael’s Church, Charleston, SC-
Courthouse, New Castle, Deleware-
Most large houses have a center passage flanked symmetrically by two rooms on either side, with a repititive footprint for both floors. The long passage has entry doors at each end to catch cooling breezes and a stairway to the second floor.
Domestic buildings imitate public ones in the application and general use of materials. Facades with classically delineated entries are common. Repetitively sized and spaced double-hung windows with six-over-six or nine-over-nine glass panes dominate, an obvious change from the previous use of small casement windows.
Wilton House, Richmond, VA-
Vassal-longfellow House, Cambridge, MA-
Cliveden House, Germantown, PA-
Miles Brewton House, Charleston, SC-